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Grape Types

Red Grapes

Cabernet Sauvignon

Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the most famous and wide growth grapes in the world. It has thick skins and large seed which produce full bodies, heavy tannin and acidity to the wine. It can produce some complex and long lasting wine. Also the wines made from it are very suitable for aging. New wine will give strong tannin as roughness and high acidity, which can be dissolved by aging and turn into balance with aroma of blackcurrant and tobacco, licorice, etc. Left bank of the Bordeaux is the most famous region using Cabernet Sauvignon dominantly.


Merlot is another key grapes to use in Bordeaux. It dominantly use in the right bank of the Bordeaux. Some Chateau will use 100% merlot to produce wine, especially in Pomerol region. Compare to Cabernet Sauvignon, it has thinner skin which gives lighter tannins and acidity. It give wine with more red fruit of cherry, plum aroma. Merlot is east to ripen in cooler climate and more alcoholic in warmer weather. Merlot is the 3rd most grown grapes for wine production.

Cabernet Franc

Cabernet Franc is one of the most fragrance style grapes. It lighter than Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. It is the best friend to Cabernet Sauvignon, it widely use to blends with Cab. Sau. in Bordeaux.

Pinot Noir

If Cabernet Sauvignon is representing Bordeaux, Pinot Noir is the icon of Burgundy. Pinot Noir is very sensitive to the weather and terroir, very thin skin and notoriously difficult to grow. It requires to grown with warm at day times and cool at nights. Too hot will make the wine overripe, too cool will make the wine too thin and pale. Wine made from Pinot Noir is typically elegant with soft tannins, it give bouquet of cherry and strawberries aroma together with earthy and tea-leafs. Beside traditional grown in Burgundy, you can also find good quality pinot noir wine from New Zealand, Victoria in Australia and Oregon in USA.


This grape is known to call Syrah in France and Shiraz in Australia. It is the dominated grape use in Northern Rhone France, such as Hermitage and Cote Rotie. In cool climate, such as Hermitage, it gives lovely aroma of blackberries fruit, and noticeable black pepper and spices aromas. Hot climate shiraz, such as Barossa Valley in Australia, is more jammy and ripe black fruit.


Grenache is widely planted round Mediterranean. Most commonly find in Spain and Southern Rhone. Grenache is kind of spicy, full of berries aroma and high sugar levels. However due to lack of acidity and tannin, therefore it usually blended with Syrah in Southern Rhone, such as Chateauneuf-de-Pape and blended with Tempranillo, such as Rioja in Spain.


Sangiovese is an Italian wine grape mainly planted in the Tuscany Italy. Mostly known is to make wine of Chianti Classico and Brunello di Montalcino. Good quality Sangiovese gives high acid, firm tannins and balance structure. It has clear character of dark cherries and black stone fruit together with dried herbs. Brunello di Montalcino is using Sangiovese solely and it is the best to demonstrate their characteristic.


Sangiovese is the grape of Italy; Tempranillo is the grape of Rioja. Tempranillo in Spanish is mean earlier ripens red grape, in face it normally ripens several weeks earlier than others grapes. It is very suitable for long oak-aging, like gran reserva which need at least 2 years in oak and 3 years in bottle before release to market. It also very often to blend with Garnacha(Grenache). Best Tempranillo growth in high altitudes, it gives full or medium bodied wine, with medium acidity and tannins. It gives lovely aroma of strawberries, spicy notes, savoury animal, vegetal flavours.


The most famous wines of Piemonte Italy are Barolo and Barbaresco which are make from the Nebbiolo grape. This grape gives full bodied wine with high tannins, acidity and high alcohol. Red fruit aroma such as strawberries and together with roses and violets bouquet and earthy tar will develop. It also will give vegetal and animal components after aged.

White Grapes


Chardonnay, the King of the white wines! Burgundy is the home of the Chardonnay, it used in all appellations, such as Montrachet, Meursault and Chablis. It also uses solely in Champagne as Blanc de Blanc Champagnes. It is a neutral grape, it is easy influence by terroir and oak. It gives green fruit with citrus in cool region such as Chablis. In moderate region, such as Burgundy, it might taste of stone fruit, citrus and melon. In warm region, which most of the New World Chardonnay, result in the expression of more tropical fruit notes. Chardonnay wines tend to be quite full bodied, with weighty and creamy structure.


Riesling is one of the most aromatic white wine grapes. It originated from Germany. Riesling can make entire different wine in different region. In cool regions, it has expression of green fruit flavour with floral note. In moderate climates, the citrus, stone fruit become more obvious with fresh lime or white peach nose. In Germany, the Riesling is very susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, which concentrate sugars make the grape ideal for sweet wine. It has a wide range of different type of Riesling wine, which can identify from the ripeness level at harvest from Kabinett, Spatlese, Auslese, Beerenauslese to Trockenbeerenauslese. Petroleum notes can be finding in some aged quality Riesling wines.

Sauvignon Blanc

Sauvignon Blanc was originated from Bordeaux. It is an aromatic white grape. It’s usually shown strong aromas of green fruit and gooseberries. Refreshing and best to be drunk while it relatively young. It is a key component to blend with Semillon to form the famous Sauternes dessert wine and premium white Bordeaux.


Semillon is the main grape used to make dry and sweet white wines. The most famous is use as dominated grape for the Sauternes sweet white wine. For the sweet wine in Sauternes, the grapes have to be affected by the Botrytis cinerea (Noble rot). This will cause the grape to become partially raisin, which concentrates sugars and acidity and make that ideal for sweet wine. Wine from Semillon grape normally full bodied, rich with low acidity and oily texture.


Viognier is a white wine grape which extremely aromatic. Wine from the appellations of Condrieu is make from 100% Viognier. On the nose Viognier is very floral of lavender and hawthorn blossom and apricots. The wine make from Viognier should rather drink it young. In new world, viognier is best friend of Shiraz, it helps to stabilize the color of the wine and give floral aroma to the Shiraz.

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